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Jupiters were medium-range 1.45 megaton ballistic missiles (equivalent to 97 Hiroshima devices).

The program had started at the end of 1955.

In 1958 General De Gaulle refused that they be deployed on French soil.

Instead, they were installed in Italy and in Turkey.

"No missiles in my backyard!"

They became operational in 1960, and were dismantled or removed from Italy in 1963, thus meeting the demand of the Rome government who had shown cautious, embarrassed solidarity with the US in so far as Italy was within range in case of Soviet retaliation.

Their installation in July-August 1962 on the Cigli base, near Izmir was the result of an agreement reached with Turkey in October 1959, but the 15 Jupiters soon proved obsolete for lack of mobility.

JFK had decided to dismantle them without warning the Turks, who were not consulted either when they were actually removed in April 1963. The 60 intercontinental Thor missiles, deployed on 20 British bases since 1958, were also removed between November 1962 and August 1963.


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